Can Avitrol be used without mortality?
-Yes. Whether birds experience mortality primarily depends on how much treated grain is being consumed. Please see the "What factors affect mortality" section below for more details.

Are birds affected by Avitrol in pain?
-No. An adversarial group conducted university tests to determine if birds affected by Avitrol were in pain. Their conclusion, which is consistent with other researchers, was that the affected birds were not in pain. Copies of this paper, prepared by the Department of Pathology of the University of Ottawa, are available here.

With what birds may Avitrol be used?
-Avitrol may be used to control: Feral Pigeons (Columba livia), House Sparrows (Passer domesticus), Red-Winged (Agelaius pheoniceus), Yellow-headed (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), and Brewer's (Euphagus cyanocephalus) Blackbirds, Grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus, Quiscalus major & Quiscalus quiscula), Cowbirds (Molothrus ater & Molothrus aeneus), European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), and Crows (Corvus brachyhynchos, Corvus caurinus & Corvus ossifragus).

Does Avitrol pose a threat to other species?
-If not properly used, yes. Avitrol is toxic to all vertebrate species that eat the chemical.

Is there a secondary poisoning problem with Avitrol?
-No. Avitrol has no true secondary poisoning. It is possible that if an animal were to eat undigested bait from a bird's digestive tract that it might be affected. We have not seen this occur in field applications. Please see the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Secondary Hazards Report.

Are permits required for the use of Avitrol?
-The Federal government does not currently require permits for use of Avitrol on any birds listed on the Avitrol labels. State or local government regulations may require permits. This is why the label requires that the applicator check for the existence of such permitting requirements or other restrictions/regulations.

What factors affect mortality?

-There are a number of factors that may affect mortality.
a) The time of day the chemical is ingested is a major influence. Birds eating the treated bait after feeding may have: i) a reduced reaction, ii) a delayed reaction, or iii) no reaction at all. This may cause problems if birds die away from the treatment site.

b) The blend ratio of treated to untreated is a major factor in mortality.

c) The third major factor in mortality is the temperature. The colder the weather, the higher the mortality. The reason for this is twofold. First, when it is cold, a bird's metabolism is higher. Second, when it is colder, a bird eats more. The effect of these two factors is that more active ingredient gets into a bird's system more quickly; and finally,

d) The general health of the flock and competing food sources are qualitative factors influencing mortality. Concluding this important subject of mortality, early morning baiting, cold weather and high ratio of treated to untreated will increase mortality, but will also give quicker flock control.

How is Avitrol used?
-When using Avitrol,

a) Survey the site in accordance with NPMA survey recommendations,

b) Prebait the site at locations indicated by your survey with a food similar to the Avitrol bait which will be used. For instance, prebait with clean, whole kernel corn if you plan to bait with Avitrol Whole corn.

c) We recommend prebaiting and baiting for pigeons in wooden bait trays, two feet square or larger.

d) We are frequently asked how long to prebait. The answer is as long as it takes. Prebaiting should continue uninterrupted until the flock is eating well. This will usually require two weeks or less but in some cases a substantially longer period is required.

e) When prebaiting, it is helpful to remember that a flock of 100 pigeons will eat seven to ten (7-10) pounds of grain bait per day. When bait acceptance is good, one would expect the flock to eat three and one-half to ten pounds of grain per hundred birds per day.

f) Once the prebait is accepted as described above, decide upon a blend ratio of Avitrol treated grain to untreated grain. The higher the percentage of Avitrol treated grain in the blend, the higher the mortality but usually the quicker the results.

g) Using Avitrol treated grain similar to the grain used for prebaiting, blend the treated bait following label instructions and precautions and place it in the bait locations used for prebaiting. Do not allow a lapse of time between prebaiting and baiting.

h) Since there will always be mortality, arrange to pick up dead and dying birds promptly and dispose of them in accordance with local and label regulations. Failure to do this is the most common cause of public complaint.

i) Birds accustomed to taking prebait will usually go directly to the bait after leaving the roost in the morning. Because they have fasted all night, their metabolism will be relatively high and the effect of any chemical will be felt more quickly than at other times of the day. Therefore, it is recommended that the blend of treated and untreated bait be exposed before daylight on the treatment days and in sensitive areas picked up on the same day.

j) Cycle the above steps until you achieve the control you require.

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